|Season||Herd||Motivations||Locations in Boxley Valley|
|Cow Elk||Security, Gestation & Childbirth||North Boxley Valley, isolated from herd bulls.|
|Bull Elk||Security, Isolation from Cow Elk||Upper Wilderness area for biggest bulls, more south end.|
Calving June & July
Isolation during calving
Security in herds with calves
Isolated areas during calving -- river cane lines, tree lines, remote fields.
Mostly in central to northern fields.
Isolation from cow elk until fall.
Growing antlers, in velvet
Middle to late August, bulls scrape velvet.
Mostly in southern fields and the upper wilderness.
More timid than cow elk, generally gone from fields a half hour after sunrise.
Pre-rut behaviors, some late scraping.
Mating season (rut) late September to Mid-November, some later.
Pre-rut behavior moves bulls into proximity to cow herds. Young bulls often mix in.
Rut begins, big elk arrive from upper wilderness around first week in October.
Bull fights for mating rights through entire rut.
Cows become estrous. Start of estrous different for old cows and yearlings (perhaps staggered two weeks).
Cows return to estrous in 30 day cycles until successfully bred.
Herds move to central and north valley locations. Some herd bulls persist into December.
Bachelor bull herds form after rut. These herds are segregated by size.
Bulls move to Upper Wilderness and south valley locations.